Ever wonder why the Spartan hoplon (shield) had a lambda (L) on it instead of a sigma (S)? Sparta was the ruling polis, but the area it controlled was Lacedaemonia.  The number of Spartiate (full citizens) was always less than 5% of the total population of over 200,000 in Lacedaemonia.  Though Spartan society was based on duties owed to the state rather than any notion of individual rights, it was the only Greek city-state that provided education for girls similar to that given to boys, and women enjoyed relatively more rights there than anywhere else in Greece.